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"The molecule contains a number of polar OH groups, enabling them to form hydrogen bonds with water. As a result, monosaccharides are highly soluble in water".

Could you please remind me of what a hydrogen bond is, and how it does this with water? How does this also make it soluble in water? Thanks


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Hydrogen bond is basically a type (the strong type) of dipole-dipole interaction due to electronegativity differences between the O and the H.

Hydrogens attached to N, O or F create a strong electronegativity difference, and can form hydrogen bonds.

It basically means the O in H2O is slightly negatively charged, while the hydrogens are slightly positively charged. The same happens to the O-H groups in the monosaccharides (the O's become negative, the H's are positive).

This allows water and the monosaccharide to interact (the positives of the water meet the negatives of the monosaccharide, and vice versa). This allows water molecules to "encapsulate" the monosaccharide (forming a wall of water around the monosaccharide molecule) and "lift" it out of the larger clump of monosaccharide (imagine a cube of sugar), which essentially dissolves the monosaccharide (sugar) within the body of water.


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