In Unit 3 Psychology - Memory, what is Craik and Lockhart's levels of processing?

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The levels-of-processing effect, identified by Fergus I. M. Craik and
Robert S. Lockhart in 1972, describes memory recall of stimuli as a
function of the depth of mental processing. Depth of processing falls
on a shallow to deep continuum. Shallow processing (e.g., processing
based on phonemic and orthographic components) leads to a fragile
memory trace that is susceptible to rapid decay. Conversely, deep
processing (e.g., semantic processing) results in a more durable
memory trace. This theory contradicts the multi-store
Atkinson-Shiffrin memory model which represents memory strength as
being continuously variable.

In a study from 1975 participants were given a list of 60 words. Each
word was presented along with three questions. The participant had to
answer one of them. Those three questions were in one of three
categories. One category of questions were about how the word were
presented visually ("Is the word shown in italics?"). The second
category of questions were about the phonemic qualities of the word
("Does the word begin with the sound 'bee'?"). The third category of
questions were presented so that the reader was forced to think about
the word within a certain context. ("Can you meet one in the street [a
friend]"?) The result of this study showed that the words which
contained deep processing (the latter) was remembered better.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Levels-of-processing_effect

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