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How could a mutation affect polypeptide formation?

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2 Answers

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The polypeptide produced loses its specificity to its function unless the mutation is silent.

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If this was a VCE exam / SAC question, I would go into a little bit more detail on the types of mutation since each have their own effects on polypeptide formation. For example, frameshift mutation where the removal of nucleotides causes the reading frame to shift and the wrong proteins translated, nonsense mutation where a STOP codon is transcribed and missense mutation where a single nucleotide is substituted for another, causing a different protein to be translated. Of course, there's silent mutation where a nucleotide is substituted and the same amino acid is formed (because the genetic code is degenerate)

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